How to properly protect the foundation from moisture?

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I am building a house. The question of waterproofing the foundation came up. Are there different ways? Which one is the most effective? 

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Every construction begins with the foundation of the house. The foundation is the foundation and its high-quality waterproofing depends not only on the longevity of the construction, but also comfortable living without moisture and mold in the corners of the first floor.

The main enemy of the foundation is water. With poor quality waterproofing or lack of it the foundation will be absorbed by moisture from the ground and gradually degrade. Concrete is destroyed by aggressive groundwater, as well as from freezing of the water that penetrated inside, which has a large damaging force during the expansion.

Waterproofing of foundations is done in order to obtain a waterproof, durable, resilient and moisture resistant coating to protect the structure from moisture.

The foundation walls should be prepared before applying the waterproofing layer: all holes, cracks and potholes in the concrete should be sealed. After the surface is completely dry, it is cleaned of any encrustations and remnants of mortar, then the construction dust is removed with a broom or a brush with long bristles.

Foundation waterproofing should be done comprehensively to completely protect not only the foundation, but also the entire building from ground moisture.

There are three professional solutions to make quality, dense waterproofing: film insulation, injection insulation, spray-on insulation.

Film waterproofing (two-component) is done in two steps. First, the outer surface of the foundation is covered with sealing mineral micro-solutions. At the second stage, the surface is covered with modified thick films based on bituminous sealants. Two-component insulation has its own advantages: elastic after curing, ecological (without solvents), has excellent adhesion. High resistance to aggressive water and rain. Durability (the coating practically does not age).

Protection of foundations with Euro rope, which is glued by heating refractory bitumen using gas burners, can also be referred to as film waterproofing.

Injection waterproofing is often used to reconstruct old foundations. You can perform the work both on the outer and on the inner side of the foundation (if there is a basement). Drill holes into the concrete to a depth of ¾ of the wall thickness and put steel injectors through which the waterproofing solution is injected under pressure into the body of the foundation. As a result of chemical reaction, the composition turns into insoluble crystals, which fill all the microcracks in the thickness of the concrete or other building material. The method is quite expensive, but effectively cuts off the penetration of moisture into the body of the foundation.

Primary waterproofing is applied in two steps (sometimes more) by spraying or roller.

The coating dries quickly, has high elasticity and good water resistance. On the fully dried surface with the same mastic it is possible to glue extruded polystyrene boards for insulation of the foundation and to protect the waterproofing coating from mechanical damage.

The upper horizontal surface of the foundation should also be waterproofed from the ceiling or walls of the first floor. Horizontal insulation is performed with roll materials (Ruberoid) or use two-component insulation, which is much more effective than Ruberoid.

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